Asia/India/Octubre de 2016/Autora: Nisha Thapliyal/Fuente: Green Left.org
RESUMEN: El All India Foro por el Derecho a la Educación (AIFRTE) acaba de lanzar un documental sobre su lucha contra la privatización de la educación en la India. La película, pelearemos, ganaremos ofrece una rara visión de las voces de base para la educación pública en la India. Fue filmada en gran parte durante una marcha nacional 2014, cuando activistas AIFRTE de toda la India emprendieron un viaje por carretera a la ciudad central india de Bhopal, en el estado de Madhya Pradesh. Durante el viaje de un mes, activistas detenidos en las ciudades y pueblos para celebrar reuniones públicas y eventos de educación popular para crear conciencia sobre el asalto neoliberal en la educación pública. La marcha culminó con una reunión de tres días en Bhopal con actuaciones culturales de Jan geet (canciones populares), y el teatro popular y discursos de intelectuales y activistas públicos respetados.
The All India Forum for the Right to Education (AIFRTE) has just released a documentary about its struggle against the privatisation of education in India. The film, We Shall Fight, We Shall Win provides a rare glimpse into grassroots voices for public education in India.
It was largely filmed during a 2014 national march when AIFRTE activists from all over India undertook a road trip to the central Indian city of Bhopal in the state of Madhya Pradesh. During the month-long journey, activists stopped in towns and villages to hold public meetings and popular education events to raise awareness about the neoliberal assault on public education. The march culminated with a three-day meeting in Bhopal featuring cultural performances of jan geet (people’s songs), and popular theatre and speeches by respected public intellectuals and activists.
The 54 minute-long documentary is available in English and Hindi and can be watched and shared online via the AIFRTE Campaign YouTube channel. This article provides a brief historical overview of AIFRTE and discusses key messages in the film. Readers are encouraged to view the film and share their feedback with AIFRTE through the YouTube page or via email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
AIFRTE was officially founded in 2009 at a key moment in the history of Indian education — the passage of the 2009 Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act. Despite its name, the Act has primarily functioned to weaken a historically underfunded and unequal public education system.
Six years on, the unfunded legislation remains virtually unimplemented. The closure of government primary schools continues apace — most recently in the wealthy state of Andhra Pradesh — as do efforts to undermine the status of government school teachers. Instead of increased accountability, the Act has absolved the government of all responsibility for its resounding failure to provide universal and equitable education for all Indian children.
It is in these conditions that India has become destination #1 for venture capitalists and philanthro-capitalists who seek to profit from education in countries with struggling public education systems.
In India, these currently include vulture capitalist-funded actors such as Omega Schools and Bridge International Academies (funded by Pearson Affordable Learning Funds), and the Indian School Finance Company (funded by Grey Ghost Ventures).
These for-profit providers offer “low-cost” English-language private education to families who believe that learning English will secure the futures of their children. In reality, these for-profit schools have only added another tier to a multi-tiered education system which ensures that poor, low-caste, Adivasi and Muslim children, mainly girls, continue to be denied equitable and culturally responsive education.
The failed promises of the “low cost” private school movement have been amply documented by education researchers.
Since its inception, AIFRTE has worked to develop a national coalition which can sustain local and national resistance to education privatization. It now includes 45 member organisations and social movements located in 20 out of 29 states in the country.
Members include community groups, not-for-profit non-governmental organisations, university student and teacher unions and social movements as well as individual educators, public intellectuals, parents, students and concerned citizens. The goals of this coalition are captured in one of their favoured slogans “Education is not for sale, it is a people’s right”.
From November 2 to December 4, 2014, 2000 activists from all four corners of India travelled by road to Bhopal — the site of the world’s worst industrial disaster — the deadly Union Carbide gas leak in 1984.
The Struggle for Education March sought to raise awareness about key challenges facing the Indian public education system, including:
- the ongoing commercialisation and privatisation of public education through Foreign Direct Investment, so-called Public-Private Partnerships and the move to treat higher education as a tradeable commodity under the World Trade Organization-GATS framework; and
- the destruction of a secular education system through policies and practices that institutionalised prejudice and discrimination based on caste, religion, gender, disability, language, and other forms of socio-cultural difference.
As an alternative to privatisation, the campaign put forward a vision of a fully-free and state-funded common education system based on Constitutional values of democracy, egalitarianism, socialism and secularism.
It also called for the medium of instruction in schools to reflect the diversity of languages that constitute Indian society and for Indian languages to be given primacy in all sectors of national life.
The march was also held in solidarity with two other ongoing people’s struggles: the three decades-long struggle for justice and compensation for the people of Bhopal, and north-eastern movements to repeal the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) that gives security forces unrestrained powers for search, arrest and the use of deadly force against persons suspected of acting against the Indian state.
The documentary provides a “people’s history” of Indian education — a history that is rarely told in mainstream education discourse. Viewers can expect to learn about popular struggles for the right to education which have their roots in colonial and pre-colonial education and social reform movements around issues of caste, patriarchy, communalism and class inequality.
The documentary also recounts the evolution of post-independence education policy. It highlights the influence of the World Bank in the systematic dismantling of public education, which began in the 1980s.
It includes a range of voices that reflect the linguistic and cultural diversity of India including rarely represented voices from Adivasi (indigenous) and Dalit communities as well as from the militarised regions of Kashmir and central and north-eastern India. These voices testify to the exponential growth in educational inequality from the diverse perspectives of students, parents, activists and public intellectuals.
What makes this film unique is that many of these voices draw on rich regional cultural traditions of music, theatre and art to express themselves and raise public awareness.
The film makes several specific critiques of the Indian education system. First and foremost, that it is an unequal and segregated education system where privileged (upper- and middle-class and caste) children receive more and higher-quality educational opportunities because of the purchasing power and social status of their families.
The second critique addresses the dominant “human capital” orientation in Indian education — public and private — which is focused exclusively on producing students who will be productive and obedient workers for the capitalist economy.
Activists argue that curriculum and pedagogy fail to inculcate social awareness and responsibility and the traits are necessary for full and direct citizen participation.
The film challenges dominant perceptions among policy-makers, media and the public that “private is always better than public”. This perception takes the form of a widespread belief that children who attend English-medium private schools can be assured of securing well-paying and respectable jobs.
The reality is that after almost a decade of “private schools for the poor” — or so-called low-cost private schools — the evidence shows that these children are in no way able to compete with graduates of elite or high-fee private schools. Furthermore, even English-speaking university graduates remain unemployed or under-employed in overwhelmingly large numbers.
Last but not least, the film links the problem of unequal and segregated education in a society deeply stratified by class, caste, gender, religion, and class. The scope of injustice is reflected in the lack of access to high-quality universal health care, widespread poverty, state-condoned violence against Dalits and religious minorities, the displacement of Adivasi people from their traditional lands and consequently, the destruction of their cultures and way of life.
In sum, the film argues that struggles for public education are intrinsically connected to other struggles for economic, social and cultural justice.