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An Egyptian education: Militarising schoolchildren to serve Sisi’s regime

Africa/ Egypt/ 20.10.2018/ Source:

Since seizing power in July 2013, the Egyptian military has upended the public sector by squeezing salaries and slowing recruitment, and marginalised much of the business elite by subordinating it to Military, Inc.
It is now turning its attention to the notoriously underperforming educational sector, seeking not just to enhance quality, but to discipline the country’s youth and recruit its top performers as loyal technocrats to serve the regime.

In short, it hopes to have its cake and eat it too, with «reforms», designed to both mitigate public criticism of the quality and expense of education, as well as to produce skilled, disciplined youths supportive of military rule.

‘Reforms’ of public education

The military dominated government has recently launched three initiatives to achieve these possibly contradictory objectives. The first is broad reform of public primary, preparatory and secondary education, which includes some 20 million students in about 60,000 public schools.

Supported by a World Bank loan of $500 million, the new programme is to expand kindergarten education for 500,000 children, create 50,000 new teaching jobs and provide up to 1.5 million digital-learning devices to high school students and teachers. It will replace the existing general secondary school examination at the end of high school with a dozen exams spread over three years.

Laudable as these reforms are, they are unlikely to rapidly transform the abysmal quality of Egyptian public education, currently ranked by the World Economic Forum as 130th out of 137 in the world, with primary education ranking 133rd, Egypt’s lowest ranking on the almost 100 indicators from which the Global Competitiveness Index is constructed. 

Their aim is to induce discipline and loyalty, especially to the military, while opening a recruitment channel into the military controlled elite

Although some 90 percent of the Ministry of Education’s budget is allocated to personnel salaries, teachers are very poorly paid so typically moonlight or extract fees for private tutorials from their students, the latter of which have resulted in household expenditure on education exceeding that of the government.

About one third of teachers are «not educationally qualified» and professional development programmes are «seriously deficient«.

The hurdles to be overcome, in short, are high and require budgetary outlays beyond those currently, or in the foreseeable future, likely to be made. Tariq Shawki, Minister of Education, estimates the envisioned reforms will cost $1.5 billion in addition to the World Bank’s $500 million, noting that his projections indicate it will take 14 years for that amount to be allocated.

Read more: Egypt governor bans ‘unpatriotic’ Mickey Mouse from schools

The 2014 constitution stipulates that public education receive 4 percent of government expenditures, a proportion yet to be reached since the constitution was ratified. The maximum proportion allocated to education in republican Egypt was 5.7 percent in 1983. Government expenditure as a proportion of GDP has fallen steadily since the 1960s, at 10 percent now less than half of what it was then. Education is thus receiving a smaller slice of a proportionately smaller pie.

Of public funds spent on education, some 30 percent go to tertiary institutions, whose enrollments, which were 2.7 million in 2017, constitute about 12 percent of all students.

In the Middle East and North Africa as a whole, 24 percent of public expenditure on education is for the tertiary sector, the second highest rate in the world, led only by North America.

But whereas North America has more universities in the world’s top 500 than any other region, none of Egypt’s 24 public universities is in the top 500. Its top five public universities fall into the 500-1,000 range.

Privatisation, nationalism and discipline  

The government’s second educational initiative is to privatise as much education as possible at all levels. About ten percent, or some two million of the country’s 18-20 million (the figures vary) primary and secondary students, are in private schools.

Of the country’s 50 universities, 26 are private, with annual tuition fees ranging from $1,000 to $4,000, as compared to $50 on average at public universities. In August 2018 President Sisi signed a new law making it easier for foreign universities to open branches in Egypt, at which time the minister of higher education announced that six new international universities would be established in 2019.

Sisi had stated in March 2018, that no new university could be established without being in partnership with one of the world’s top 50 universities and that «we are not ranked in the top 500 universities in the world. I will return Egyptian universities to the top 50.»

While encouraging privatisation, the government is simultaneously bringing private schools and universities under more direct, obtrusive control, Sisi’s remarks just quoted indicating one of the new constraints placed on private universities.

As for pre-tertiary private schools, the big change is the Arabisation of the first six years of teaching, including mathematics and science, with English being taught only as a second language during that period, including in the so-called «language schools», which have always taught in English and whose share of age cohorts has been steadily increasing since the Mubarak era.

While encouraging privatisation, the government is simultaneously bringing private schools and universities under more direct, obtrusive control

This move has been strongly criticised by parents and teachers, but to no avail. What seems a related change is a new requirement «agreed» between the ministry of education and the chairman of the International Schools Association, that international schools «teach school subjects that are related to the national identity in line with the international curricula«.

These changes, reminiscent of similar ones in the Nasser era, are presumably intended to promote Egyptian nationalism. They are, moreover connected to the broader, third educational initiative, which is to induce discipline and loyalty, especially to the military, while opening a recruitment channel into the military controlled elite.

An anecdotal example of this initiative was provided by a visit by the governor of Qalyubiya Province to a kindergarten, where he spied images of Disney characters, including Mickey Mouse, on the walls.

He immediately decreed that they be replaced by drawings of «military martyrs, so that children will look up to them as role models. These characters are US made, whereas we have our own noble figures who can deepen children’s patriotism and love of country.» The Ministry of Education immediately picked up the theme, announcing the formation of a committee to implement the order.

A more systematic initiative was the launching of 79 of what is ultimately intended to be 200 «Japanese schools» in the 2018 school year, which more than 30,000 students are now attending.

Supported by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency, the declared purpose of the schools, according to the Japanese Ambassador to Egypt, is to «teach students the main principles of discipline, commitment, and respect for time».

The special curricula and teaching method is referred to as Tokkatsu, which is intended to produce a «balanced development of intellect, virtue and body by ensuring academic competence, rich emotions and healthy physical development.»

Education Minister Tariq Shawky declared at the opening of one of the schools that «the goal of the new educational system is to build a new, different Egyptian generation.» The schools will teach the Egyptian curriculum but include «distinctive features of Japanese education,» including «cleanliness and self-reliance.»

Emphasis on discipline in the new, so-called Cumulative Secondary School system was underscored by the distribution to all students entering high school, of Samsung tablet computers, which have the capacity to monitor the location of students, hence to enforce attendance rules, which will require students to be present a minimum number of days to be eligible to sit for compulsory examinations.

The ministry of education announced in October 2018 that it had prepared a law criminalising «unauthorised education centres» calling for imprisonment of offenders – presumably teachers offering private tuition.

The draft law also calls for imprisonment of students who verbally abuse or hit their teachers. The overall emphasis on order and discipline was underscored by President Sisi himself, who at the outset of the new school year publicly informed the minister of education that «I am going to visit lots of schools and I am going to sit with my grandchildren in order to follow up on the quality of the education.»

The military as educator

As with the civil service and the private business sector, the military appears also to have decided that it can educate better than others, so has become an education service provider in competition with both public and private schools.

As part of its counter-terror campaign, it opened four new primary schools in north and central Sinai under the control of the Commander of the East of the Suez Canal Counter-Terrorism Forces. An opening ceremony for one, held on the 45th anniversary of the October War «victory», was attended by the Commander of the Third Field Army.

The big change is the Arabisation of the first six years of teaching

The jewel in the crown of the military pre-tertiary educational system is the Badr International School, opened in a military zone on the outskirts of Cairo in 2015, two years after the then defense minister, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, issued the order for its creation.

A reporter who visited the school observed that its «managers and staff see their role not only in educational terms, but as a patriotic duty, holding themselves responsible for enhancing the image of the military and introducing activities that develop the nationalistic sentiments of the students.»

The commander of the Third Field Army attends the school’s monthly board meetings. Among its facilities are a swimming pool and numerous playing fields and courts. The school’s website declares that the school is the product of the armed forces and «is being implemented successfully by the primary decision maker and supervisor himself, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al Sisi». The site further notes that «We proudly follow the code of conduct of Egypt’s Armed Forces.»

This third educational initiative focused on patriotism, discipline, and loyalty to the military and the president, begs the question of its origins. What were the sources that inspired the military to directly sponsor and operate schools?

Questionable models for Egyptian educational reforms

The Badr School is remarkably reminiscent of the so-called Napola, the acronym for Nationalpolitische Lehranstalt (National Political Institution of Teaching), which were secondary schools established by the German National Socialists after they took power in 1933.

The main task of what ultimately became 43 such schools, educating at least 6,000 pupils at any one time by 1945, was «education of national socialists, efficient in body and soul for the service to the people and the state.»

They were elite preparatory schools initially directly under the authority of the national minister of education then, from 1940, under their own national Obergruppenfuhrer (Inspector). The curriculum included heavy doses of National Socialist ideology and physical fitness training. All students wore the uniform of the Hitler Youth.

It is an open question as to whether President Sisi or any of his advisers were aware of this precedent when he decreed the Badr School be created.

It is too soon to determine if it will serve as a recruitment channel into the military or possibly elite units within it or some part of the state apparatus controlled by it. In the case of the Napola schools, the plurality of their graduates joined the SS, with others being recruited by the government.

But whether or not it was a conscious model for the Egyptian leadership, its similarity attests to ambitions for youth quite like those of the National Socialists, which were to recruit carefully selected, dedicated, even fanatical loyalists to serve the regime.

The school’s site further notes that ‘We proudly follow the code of conduct of Egypt’s Armed Forces’

Another possible and contemporary source of inspiration for the Badr school and also for some of the new curricular and language impositions on both public and private schools intended to instill patriotism and possibly even distrust of foreign language speaking outsiders, is East Asia.

The new Japanese Schools are explicit copies of that East Asian model, whereas the elite schools under the Chinese Communist Party, intended to educate party cadres and prepare them to rule, may just have informed Egyptian leaders when making their recent choices about changes to the educational system. Again, the emphasis on discipline, physical training, patriotism and elitism are common to both.

Schools for Egyptian nationalism

In conclusion, the tripartite educational reforms currently underway in Egypt are driven by both profound popular discontent with the lamentable state of the country’s entire educational system, as well as by the desire of the military dominated regime to recruit and train loyalist implementors of regime policies, while simultaneously reinforcing Egyptian nationalism throughout the entire system.

These are top down, not bottom up reforms, hence depart profoundly from best practice in educational reform, which emphasises the need for broad stakeholder participation by parents, teachers, students, administrators, and so on, for reforms to be effective.

The schools will teach the Egyptian curriculum but include ‘distinctive features of Japanese education,’ including ‘cleanliness and self-reliance’

These decreed initiatives, combined with the lack of adequate financial support for the public educational system now dealing with some 20 million students, and new interventions into the private sector that will restrict the autonomy of schools and universities and probably undermine the quality of their offerings, are likely to perpetuate, even intensify, the problem of a woefully inadequate educational system, rather than cure its ills.

Associated closely with the military, these recent educational reforms will not outlast its political dominance or possibly even that of President Sisi’s personal hegemony.

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Proyectos de Jamaica y Egipto ganan Premio Unesco sobre educación

Unesco/04 Octubre 2018/Fuente: Prensa Latina
Proyectos de Jamaica y Egipto resultaron ganadores del Premio Unesco para la educación de las niñas y las mujeres en su edición de 2018, anunció hoy esa organización de Naciones Unidas.
De acuerdo con un comunicado, la subdirectora general de Educación de la Unesco, Stefania Giannini, y el viceministro de Educación de China, Xuejun Tian, entregarán los galardones en ceremonia prevista el 11 de octubre, en el Día Internacional de la Niña.

Un jurado internacional escogió a los ganadores entre numerosas candidaturas presentadas por los Estados Miembros y varias organizaciones no gubernamentales.

En el caso del reconocimiento a un programa de Jamaica, se trata del proyecto Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (diploma de estudios secundarios caribeño), dirigido específicamente a las jóvenes que abandonaron la escuela por embarazos precoces.

A ellas se les ofrecen nuevas oportunidades de recibir diversos tipos de formaciones, se les estimula a volver a la escuela para completar su educación básica y continuar hasta la educación superior.

La Unesco también recompensará la Fundación Misr El-Kheir de Egipto por su proyecto ‘Oportunidades de educación para los niños de pueblos carentes de servicios adecuados gracias a escuelas comunitarias’.

La iniciativa ofrece posibilidades de educación centradas en la comunidad a niños de entre seis y 14 años de edad que viven en regiones aisladas, con particular hincapié en las niñas que no se han matriculado en la escuela primaria o que han abandonado la escuela debido a un matrimonio precoz u otros obstáculos.

El Premio Unesco para la educación de las niñas y las mujeres, creado en 2015 por el Consejo Ejecutivo y financiado por China, contribuye a la realización de la Agenda de Desarrollo Sostenible 2030, en particular a los objetivos referidos a la educación y a la igualdad de género.

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Presidente egipcio inaugura foro sobre educación especial

África/Egipto/03 Octubre 2018/Fuente: Prensa Latina
El presidente egipcio, Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, inauguró hoy el primer Foro Árabe para Escuelas Especiales, que se realiza en el balneario de Sharm El-Shiekh, en el Mar Rojo.
De acuerdo con el portavoz de la presidencia, Bassam Rady, el encuentro concluirá el próximo jueves y contará con participantes de Arabia Saudita, Bahrein, Emiratos Árabes Unidos, Kuwait y Jordania.

Las aulas superpobladas en Egipto han sido un desafío apremiante para el sistema educativo del país norafricano en los últimos años, con clases que superan los 100 estudiantes en algunas escuelas.

El Ministerio egipcio de Educación, Tarek Shawki, dijo en 2017 que los informes de competitividad educativa internacional clasificaban al país en el lugar 134 de los 139 países en el índice de calidad de educación primaria.

Igualmente, la nación norafricana se encontraba en ese año en el sitio 28 de 139 países en cuanto a matrícula total de estudiantes en la educación primaria.

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Year of 2019: Education and building the Egyptian character

Asia/Egypt/By Dania Akkawi/Source:

The Information Center of the Council of Ministers published an infograph on the recommendations of the Sixth National Youth Congress that took place July 28-29.

The recommendations included naming the year 2019 as the «Year of Education», launching the National Project for the Development of the New Education System, the allocation of 20 percent of the scholarships within and outside Egypt to the teaching staff for 10 years and training teachers of technical education in accordance with international standards.

Alongside other developments, the Council of Ministers was mandated to link, or rather correlate, the university plans with the need of the state and to prepare a plan for the return of sports and cultural activities.

The conference consisted of top-scoring 2017/2018 thanaweya amma graduates, officials, ministers and other important figures, who came together to primarily discuss finding a way to build a generation fit for the future.

“We don’t want to reclaim the Egyptian character…but to work to develop it to keep up with our times,” said President Abdel Fatah al-Sisi.

Focusing on education is a top priority for the progression of Egypt and the development of youth.

“Do you want real education or do you want your kids to just get ‘degrees?’ A real educational reform is a harsh, long trip that requires sacrifice from students, teachers and parents,” said Sisi.

The first session, titled “The Strategy of Building the Egyptian Person,” focuses on character building that will be achieved via healthcare reform, proper education and sports.
Amongst the recommendations published by the Information Center is boosting the coordination between ministries to provide school students with opportunities to practice sports, cultural and artistic activities in youth centers and cultural palaces.

Minister of Youth, Ashraf Sobhy, explained that the ministry is aiming to enhance sports facilities and that programs regarding physical education will be made available for various age groups.

Interestingly, some of these discussions not only concern students in upper grades, but also nursery students. Parts of the recommendations mention the establishment of nurseries for creativity and innovation; these will be under the auspices of the Supreme Council of Universities to provide support for creative youth in all fields.

Although this recommendation is based on Prime Minister, Mostafa Madbouly’s point that character building is a Cabinet priority, as he stated in the first session, improving the standard of living will not be ignored.

«Egypt Take Off» program focuses on improving the standard of living via establishing housing projects and eliminating slums, stated Madbouly.
These developments will aid the economy by both creating jobs and bringing about the concept of entrepreneurship, he explained.

MP and Secretary of Human Rights Committee, Sherif al-Wardani stressed the importance of this conference, particularly in terms of science, education and development of youth.

Wardani pointed out that the process of developing education is a fundamental and important goal for the development of the Egyptian human.

He stressed the need to implement the recommendations of the youth conference as it is a link between the state and the youth.


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Grand Reportage: Le naufrage de l’éducation publique en Egypte

Egypte/20-06-2018/Par Francois Hume-Ferkatadjihttp:/

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L’élection présidentielle qui se tient, en ce moment, en Egypte n’aura pas permis de faire émerger des débats d’idées sur les thèmes importants pour la vie des Egyptiens. L’état de l’éducation publique, très dégradée, soulève pourtant des inquiétudes, des angoisses, pour les enfants, et pour les parents. Selon les spécialistes, la situation de l’éducation est « misérable ». Le classement international du Forum économique mondial place l’Egypte à la dernière position sur 140 pays, pour la qualité des enseignements aux niveaux primaire et secondaire.

Etablissements surchargés – 80 à 100 élèves par classe dans certains quartiers – professeurs sous-payés et corrompus, violences en tout genre : les enfants n’apprennent plus rien à l’école. Pour les laisser passer au niveau supérieur, la plupart des professeurs les obligent à s’inscrire aux cours privés qu’ils donnent après la classe. Une charge supplémentaire pour les parents qui, pour certains, ne peuvent pas payer. Résultat : 30% des élèves finissent l’école primaire sans savoir lire ou écrire et ce, dans la 2ème plus importante économie d’Afrique.



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La autoridad religiosa de Egipto promulga una fatua en contra de la mutilación genital femenina

Egipto/16 de Junio de 2018/El Mundo

Toda una vida contra la mutilación genital femenina

El organismo dice que se trata de un «deber religioso» erradicar la ablación por su «impacto negativo en el bienestar físico y psíquico» de las mujeres

El país encabeza la clasificación mundial de población sometida a esta práctica por delante de Etiopía o Nigeria

Tiene apenas 12 años pero hace unas semanas sufrió el desgarro de la mutilación genital femenina, una práctica común todavía entre musulmanes y cristianos egipcios a pesar de arrastrar una década de prohibición. Su caso ha terminado en los tribunales después de una fuerte hemorragia y ha obligado a una de las principales autoridades musulmanas del país a promulgar una fatua (edicto religioso) que la declara como una intervención no islámica en respuesta a algunos clérigos que la consideran «una necesidad».

«La fiscalía general de Egipto ha abierto una investigación al doctor que supuestamente realizó la mutilación general a la niña en la provincia de Sohag [a unos 400 kilómetros al sur de El Cairo]», confirma a EL MUNDO Suad Abu Dayyeh, investigadora de la organización Equality Now. La menor tuvo que ser atendida de urgencia en un hospital tras sufrir una hemorragia. Una decena de organizaciones locales han presentado una demanda en los tribunales exigiendo el inicio del ajuste de cuentas.

La alarma ha llegado hasta las autoridades religiosas. El Dar el Ifta -un organismo oficial responsable de publicar edictos religiosos- ha indicado públicamente que la ablación no está mencionada en la legislación islámica y que se trata de «un deber religioso» erradicarla por «su impacto negativo en el bienestar físico y psíquico» de la población femenina.

«Esta práctica no tiene origen religioso. Procede de tradiciones y costumbres heredadas. La mayor prueba de que no es una obligación para las mujeres es que el profeta Mahoma no circuncidó a sus hijas», arguye el comunicado de la organización en respuesta a las fatuas (edictos religiosos) difundidos por algunos miembros de la Universidad de Al Azhar, con sede en El Cairo, defendiendo que la mutilación es una necesidad religiosa basada presuntamente en «hadices» (dichos y hechos del profeta).

A juicio de la entidad, la ablación ha sido practicada durante siglos por algunas tribus árabes «conforme a unas circunstancias que han cambiado». Dar el Ifta presenta como razones «la investigación científica de organizaciones de salud internacionales y acreditadas instituciones médicas que demuestran las consecuencias negativas de la mutilación» y alerta contra quienes promulgan edictos sin tener conocimientos médicos o religiosos. «Prohibir esta práctica es la decisión más adecuada y consecuente con la sharia (legislación islámica)«, agrega la nota.

Egipto encabeza la clasificación mundial de población sometida a ablación por delante de Etiopía, Nigeria o Indonesia. Una de cada cinco mutiladas reside en la tierra de los faraones, según Unicef. En total, 27,2 millones de mujeres mantienen fresco el recuerdo de la jornada en el que se convirtieron en víctimas. La sensibilización ha comenzado a cosechar sus frutos. Según datos estatales, el 92,3 por ciento de las egipcias casadas con edades comprendidas entre 15 y 49 años ha sufrido la práctica. La encuesta de demografía y salud de 2014 muestra una caída en la prevalencia entre los 15 y 17 años de edad del 13 por ciento respecto a la de 2008.

La práctica está más extendida en las zonas rurales, donde -según un estudio del ministerio de Salud- el 96 por ciento de las menores de edad ha sufrido la ablación frente al 85 por ciento de las zonas urbanas. A pesar de la prohibición y las campañas educativas, aún existen muchas voces que siguen justificando la práctica. En 2016 el médico Ahmed el Tahawi, por aquel entonces miembro del comité de Sanidad del Parlamento egipcio, defendió la necesidad de la ablación. El diputado aseveró: «cuando dejamos a la mujer sin circuncisión, esa zona de su cuerpo se contamina además de causar un estado no deseado de excitación sexual que podría originar graves problemas».

Los valedores de la mutilación -que, entre los países musulmanes de la región, solo está arraigada en Egipto y Sudán- aseguran que se trata de una practica religiosa que reduce la libido de las mujeres, preserva su virginidad hasta el matrimonio y elimina cualquier tentación de adulterio. Dar al Ifta subraya que la ablación sigue vigente «como normal social en las zonas rurales y más empobrecidas» del país. «En el islam proteger el cuerpo de cualquier daño es un deber. Si los padres consienten que sus hijas se sometan a esta horrenda cirugía, deberían ser castigados», asevera el organismo.

«Es bueno que se siga recalcando que no se trata de una exigencia religiosa. La práctica aún está en vigor y es llevada a cabo por quienes deberían cuidar de la población como médicos y enfermeras», indica Abu Dayyeh, empeñada en llevar ante la justicia a los facultativos que la realizan en la clandestinidad de clínicas privadas o viviendas particulares, en terribles condiciones higiénicas.

Una realidad que hace dos años llevó al Gobierno a endurecer la ley aprobada en 2008 multiplicando las penas de cárcel por efectuar la ablación. La norma elevó el castigo, de los entre tres meses y dos años de prisión previos a los entre cinco y siete años. Una de las últimas tragedias que impulsaron la reforma legislativa se produjo en 2013 cuando Soheir, una niña de 13 años perdió la vida tras someterse a la ablación. Por primera vez desde la prohibición, el doctor fue juzgado y condenado a dos años y tres meses de prisión.


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Se filtran nuevamente exámenes escolares en Egipto

África/Egipto/07 junio 2018/Fuente: Prensa Latina
El examen de secundaria (Thanaweya amma) de lengua francesa en Egipto se filtró hoy en las redes sociales, un hecho que por reiterado se ha convertido en una constante desde hace varios años.
De acuerdo con un funcionario del Ministerio de Educación, después de verificar el examen publicado en línea se evidenció que era idéntico al que los estudiantes realizan actualmente.

La identificación del autor del delito, agregó, se realizará rápidamente ya que éste se olvidó de borrar su número de identificación personal de la imagen que circuló en Internet.

Los alumnos que se someten a los exámenes Thanaweya amma, cuyos resultados determinan los destinos universitarios y futuros cursos de estudio, reciben un código individual con su hoja de examen.

Una fuente del ministerio dijo a la prensa que 12 páginas de Facebook que ‘promovieron trampas’ escolares fueron cerradas en las últimas 24 horas.

Estas páginas tratan los exámenes como un negocio, y algunos usan los exámenes para atraer suscriptores antes de venderlas por grandes sumas de dinero’, agregó.

El pasado 3 de junio el examen de idioma árabe se filtró en Internet durante su aplicación. Según el jefe del departamento de exámenes generales del Ministerio de Educación, Khaled Abdel Hakam, un grupo de estudiantes de secundaria en la gobernación de Menoufiya, en el norte del país, publicaron online las preguntas y respuestas.

Durante los últimos tres años las preguntas y respuestas de varios exámenes de diversas materias se filtraron anticipadamente en línea, lo que provocó repetidas cancelaciones, y repeticiones de esas pruebas en todo el país.

Ante esos hechos reiterados, en 2017 el Parlamento aprobó enmiendas a una ley que endurece las penas por fraude académico y otras violaciones de exámenes, incluidas la publicación de preguntas y documentos de exámenes y la posesión de teléfonos móviles y otros dispositivos inalámbricos en las salas aulas al momento de las evaluaciones.

Este año escolar más de 650 mil estudiantes egipcios se someten a los Thanaweya amma.

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