Reino Unido: Dos Niños De Todas Las Clases Comienzan La Escuela Con Un Trastorno Del Lenguaje Inexplicable

Europa/Reino Unido/Junio de 2016/The Conversation

Resumen:

El lenguaje es un logro humano fundamental. Es la base para la alfabetización, apuntala el éxito académico y social, y es importante para desarrollar y mantener relaciones con los demás. Los niños con trastornos del lenguaje tienen problemas para hablar y escuchar. Ellos tienden a tener vocabularios limitados, dejar terminaciones de las palabras y usar la gramática muy simple en sus oraciones. Tienen dificultades para contar historias coherentes y no entienden las instrucciones complejas. Esto causa muchos problemas en el aula. Así, por ejemplo, los niños con trastornos del lenguaje tendrán dificultades para entender las preguntas tales como “¿cuál de estos elementos flotará? ¿Por qué piensa así? “Incluso si entienden y sabe la respuesta, que pueden no ser capaces de utilizar las palabras para explicar” flotará la pelota, ya que está lleno de aire y es más ligero que el último centavo. “Un niño con trastorno del lenguaje solo pueden apuntar y adivinar, o articular un par de palabras clave como “la moneda sinked”. Exponen  ¿Qué se considera un “trastorno del lenguaje ‘ También se consideraron las habilidades de razonamiento no verbal de los niños pidiéndoles que resolver problemas que no implican las palabras, por ejemplo, elegir el siguiente paso en una secuencia visual entre una selección de elementos visuales similares. Niños que no reciben ayuda A pesar de esto, menos de la mitad de los niños que cumplían los criterios para el trastorno del lenguaje se ha remitido a los servicios de terapia del habla y del lenguaje. Señalan que es claro a partir de nuestra investigación que se necesita un mayor énfasis en el desarrollo del lenguaje oral en los primeros años. Por supuesto, todavía habrá algunos niños que requieren apoyo especializado, y nuestros resultados indican claramente que esto no debería depender de la capacidad no verbal. En lugar de ello, los terapeutas del habla y lenguaje deben basar las decisiones sobre la elegibilidad para el apoyo en las necesidades de lenguaje y comunicación del niño. Pero los niños con habilidades no verbales más bajas pueden no responder a la intervención de la misma manera que los niños hacen más capaces. Es difícil probar esto, en parte, porque los niños con habilidades no verbales inferiores a menudo son excluidos de los ensayos de intervenciones que podrían ayudar a ellos. Sin embargo, eso no debe significar que no reciben ayuda – sólo eso tenemos que establecer la forma más adecuada de ayudar a los niños con múltiples problemas de desarrollo.

Two children in every school class start an unexplained With language disorder

Language is a fundamental human accomplishment. It is the foundation for literacy , academic and social success underpins, and is Important for Developing and Maintaining relationships with others.

So it is no surprise That children WHO struggle to acquire Their native language are at a distinct disadvantage When They start school. Our research , recently published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, found That two five-year-old children in every Year 1 classroom of 30 had a language disorder currently are unexplained. An additional 2.34% had a language disorder as part of That occurred another developmental condition,: such as autism or Down syndrome.

Children with language disorders Have Problems with speaking and listening . They Tend To have limited vocabularies, leave endings off very simply use words and grammar in Their sentences. They Have Difficulties telling coherent stories and do not Understand complex instructions. This causes many problems in the classroom.

So for example, Children with language disorders will struggle to Understand questions: such as “Which of these items will float? Why do you think so? “Even If They Understand and know the answer, They May not be reliable to use words to explain” the ball will float Because it is filled with air and is lighter than the penny. “A child with language disorder May just point and guess, or articulate a couple of key words: such as “the penny sinked”.

Our study more than 7,000 children Involved and 190 schools in Surrey, south of London, in order to find out how many children start school in England with a language disorder – what is Known as a prevalence estimate. This May sound straightforward to work out, but it is not. As language is multi-faceted, we Measured vocabulary, grammar and narrative skills When the children Were Both speaking and listening. This is the combination of tests That Has Informed current diagnostic criteria for language disorder .

What counts as a ‘language disorder’

Have Different studies used different cutoffs for language disorder, but the severity of the cutoff point can drastically Affect the estimates of how problems are prevalent. In our study, children WHO Scored in the bottom 7% of all Pupils in the tests we gave Were Deemed To have a language disorder.

We Also Considered children’s non-verbal reasoning skills by asking them to solve problems That do not Involve words, for example, choosing the next step in a visual sequence from a selection of visually like items.

Children with good non-verbal skills May mask Problems with speaking and listening. For example, a social very child with language disorder, Who is quick to learn new activities and can copy what other children are doing May not be reliable to follow complicated instructions: such as “put your boots on after you find your coat” or May use very plain language like “picture him doing” rather than “I is painting a picture”.

In recent years, many experts Have Argued That non-verbal skills shouldnt feature in the diagnosis and decisions of how to treat Children with language disorders. But many Poorer Children with non-verbal as well as abitur language disorder can still find it difficult to meet eligibility requirements for specialist speech-language therapy services.

Help Those Who need it. Www.shutterstock.com

To measure the impact of language disorder we Took Advantage of the fact That all children in England are Assessed on the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile at the end of Their first year in school. To Achieve a “good level of development” children must meet or Exceed 12 Key Curriculum targets, Which cover speaking, listening, reading, writing, numeracy, physical and personal, social and emotional development. Most of These items tap into children’s Ability to use language in the classroom, for example to play co-operatively, share ideas, and form positive relationships with others.

Overall, we found 7.58% of children That starting school Had an unexplained language disorder. Our estimate included Children with low non-verbal abilities, and children Increased These Including the prevalence of disorders by almost 50% – from 4.8% to 7.58%. But we found low non-verbal That did not result in abitur more severe language impairments, more pervasive problems or more serious Behaviour Difficulties academic.

Children meeting our criteria for language disorder were very unlikely to meet education targets on the early years profile – only 11% of them did so. They Were Also more likely than Their peers to display social, emotional and behavioral Difficulties.

Children not getting help

DESPITE esta, fewer than half of the children met criteria for WHO HAD language disorder Been Referred to speech-language therapy services.

It’s clear from our research That to greater focus is needed on oral language development in the early years. Many teachers Suggest That oral language needs To have the same status and protected teaching literacy and numeracy Time That do. Particularly in the early years, Improving oral language Should Have positive Impacts on later literacy, and social development Behaviour.

Of course there will still be some children require specialist support WHO, and our findings Cleary This should not depend Indicate on non-verbal ability. Instead, speech-language therapists Should decisions based on eligibility for support on the child’s language and communication needs.

But Children with lower non-verbal abilities May not respond to intervention in the same way children do That more reliable. It’s difficult to prove This, in part Because Children with lower non-verbal abilities are excluded from trials of Often interventions That Could help them. NEVERTHELESS, That Should not Mean They get no help – we need only to Establish That the MOST Appropriate way of helping children with multiple developmental challenges.

Foto: https://62e528761d0685343e1c-f3d1b99a743ffa4142d9d7f1978d9686.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/files/125505/width926/image-20160607-15038-4t9mja.jpg

 

Fuente: https://theconversation.com/two-children-in-every-class-start-school-with-an-unexplained-language-disorder-60023

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