Page 51 of 51
1 49 50 51

En Buenos Aires: Un estudio asegura que las mujeres comienzan a sufrir acoso callejero a los 9 años

El Movimiento MuMaLá elaboró un informe que se desprende de una encuesta realizada a 206 mujeres mayores de 16 años en la ciudad de Buenos Aires

 Viernes 08 de abril de 2016 • 00:52

 Las mujeres comienzan a sufrir acoso callejero desde los 9 años, por lo que se ven obligadas a tener «estrategias para sentirse más seguras en la vía pública», asegura un informe presentado ayer por el Movimiento de Mujeres de la Matria Latinoamericana (MuMaLá).En el Día de lucha contra el Acoso Callejero, el Movimiento MuMaLá elaboró un informe que se desprende de una encuesta realizada a 206 mujeres mayores de 16 años en la ciudad de Buenos Aires.

Según el trabajo, la edad en la que las mujeres comienzan a ser «objeto de distintas formas de acoso callejero va entre los 9 y los 22 años, y el 50 por ciento sufrió comentarios sexuales explícitos».

Además, el 47 por ciento aseguró haber sido seguida por un hombre en alguna ocasión, mientras que el 37 por ciento de las mujeres estuvo expuesta a que un hombre se desnudara o mostrara sus partes privadas.

La coordinadora nacional de MuMaLá, Raquel Vivanco, aseguró que «el total de las mujeres encuestadas refiere haber llevado adelante diferentes estrategias para sentirse más seguras en la vía pública y el 100 por ciento de las encuestadas manifestó haber sufrido algún tipo de acoso callejero».

«La encuesta tiene como propósito visibilizar el acoso callejero que sufrimos las mujeres en el espacio público, como una manifestación más de la violencia sexista y como un problema de seguridad ciudadana, el cual se debe abordar de manera urgente», concluyó.

Por su parte, la diputada por Libres del Sur Victoria Donda, quien participó de la presentación del informe, resaltó que «se debe diseñar y ejecutar políticas públicas que promuevan ciudades seguras en las que las mujeres seamos sujetos de derecho y no ciudadanas de segunda».
 Puede escucharse una entrevista realizada en radio provincia sobre el tema en: http://www.radioprovincia.gba.gov.ar/noticias/15807-violencia-de-genero-el-estado-debe-dar-respuestas/
Comparte este contenido:

México: Denuncian proceso penal discriminatorio contra mujer en Quintana Roo

Kaosenlared/31 de marzo de 2016/Por: Kaos. Mexico

Diversas organizaciones feministas se pronunciaron en contra de la sentencia penal que recibió una mujer por la muerte de quien fuera su esposo. Durante el proceso penal no se respetó el derecho a la igualdad y a la no discriminación, tampoco se tomó en cuenta el historial de violencia del que, por muchos años, había sido víctima la mujer.

Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación: Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Quintana Roo: A la sociedad civil en México:

Ser mujer, ser indígena, ser mujer de la tercera edad, y “tener apariencia beliceña” que equivale a ser “pobre entre los pobres”, son las causas por las que Reyna JGS, una mujer víctima de violencia de pareja fuera sentenciada por un Juez Penal Oral, con pena privativa de libertad de 25 años de prisión acusada del homicidio de su pareja sentimental de iniciales M.A.S.V el 5 de julio del 2015 en el interior de una vivienda de la colonia Adolfo López Mateos, en Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México en un proceso en el que prevalecieron diversas violaciones al debido proceso, siendo una de ellas el derecho a la igualdad y no discriminación.

En el proceso, en el que no hubo intención en ninguna etapa del proceso de la aplicación de los criterios de oportunidad, y que partió de la presunción de la culpabilidad y el dolo de la imputada, sin perspectiva de género en el acceso a la justicia, el caso constituye un proceso más que evidencia la aplicación de los vicios del sistema inquisitivo dentro del nuevo Sistema en perjuicio de los derechos humanos de las mujeres.

Las organizaciones firmantes, defensoras de los derechos humanos de las mujeres, reiteramos el llamado para la aplicación del Protocolo para Juzgar con Perspectiva de Género, y exigimos que todos los casos en los que hay antecedentes de violencia de género y contextos de discriminación sistémica reconozcan e incorporen la perspectiva de género desde la etapa de la investigación, calificación de delito, la promoción de los mecanismos abreviados y la aplicación de los criterios de oportunidad previo a que el caso sea llevado ante el juez o jueza.

El caso de Reyna, mujeres de 60 años, refleja el contexto de desigualdad institucionalizada de género que constituye la base de la discriminación que viven las mujeres en el acceso a la justicia como víctimas de delitos, pero también como imputadas en procesos en los que se les señala como responsables, en los que prevalecen las visiones sesgadas por los prejuicios y los estereotipos de género.

No solo se trata de los delitos que se cometen contra las mujeres sino de la rigurosidad de las sentencias con las que se las castiga, en un claro reflejo de los prejuicios del “deber ser” para las mujeres que transgreden las normas de obediencia y de sumisión frente a sus agresores. Además de que las declaraciones de los policías ministeriales que constan en el expediente donde se refieren a Reina como una mujer de “apariencia beliceña” ya constituyen una mirada discriminatoria y trato desigual derivado del prejuicio.

Los jueces y juezas incrementan hasta en 30% las sentencias cuando se trata de juzgar a mujeres procesadas por privar de la vida a sus parejas además de que aún prevalece un desconocimiento de las leyes, tratados y convenciones aplicables en el sentido progresivo de protección a los derechos humanos de las mujeres para garantizar procesos apegados a derechos.

Demandamos la aplicación de los criterios y estándares de justicia para las mujeres, así como la revisión al debido proceso desde el inicio de la investigación y que por una serie de omisiones derivó en la sentencia que evidencia un trato discriminatorio y desigual para Reina.

Organizaciones firmantes.
Observatorio de Violencia Social y de Género en Campeche,
Red de Feministas Peninsulares (Campeche, Yucatán y Quintana Roo)
Centro de Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres de Chihuahua (Cedehm)
Mayas sin Fronteras AC
Asociación Sinaloense de Universitarias,
Moviento LGBTTTI Chihuahuense, .
Tertulianas Feministas Chihuahuense
Arthemisas por la Equidad, A. C
Comité de Derechos Humanos de Colima, No Gubernamental A. C
Academia, Litigio Estratégico e Incidencia en Derechos Humanos. A.C.
Ni una más, Yucatán.
Mujeres en Acción por México, Quintana Roo.
Mujeres Unidas contra la Violencia, Quintana Roo
Reflexión y Acción Feminista, Yucatán. Católicas por el Derecho a Decidir. Baja California: Mujeres Unidas: Olympia de Gouges; Campeche: Observatorio de Violencia Social y de Género en Campeche; Chiapas: Red Nacional de Asesoras y Promotoras Rurales; Grupo de Mujeres de San Cristóbal de las Casas AC-COLEM; Chihuahua: Centro de Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres; Mujeres por México en Chihuahua; Nuestras Hijas de Regreso a Casa; Justicia para Nuestras Hijas; Red Mesa de Mujeres de Cd. Juárez; Coahuila: Centro Diocesano para los Derechos Humanos “Fray Juan de Larios”; Colima: Comité de Derechos Humanos de Colima No Gubernamental; Guanajuato: Centro de Derechos Humanos “Victoria Diez”; Jalisco: Comité de América Latina y el Caribe para la Defensa de los Derechos de la Mujer (CLADEM); Distrito Federal: Academia Mexicana de Derechos Humanos; Católicas por el Derecho a Decidir; Comisión Mexicana de Defensa y Promoción de los Derechos Humanos; Red Mujer Siglo XXI; Morelos: Academia, Litigio Estratégico e Incidencia en Derechos Humanos, A.C.; Nuevo León: Centro de Derechos Humanos “Solidaridad Popular, A.C.; ARTHEMISAS por la Equidad, A.C.; Oaxaca: Consorcio para el Diálogo Parlamentario y la Equidad Oaxaca; Comisión de Derechos Humanos Mahatma Gandhi; Colectivo Bolivariano; Sinaloa: Asociación Sinaloense de Universitarias, A.C.; Frente Cívico Sinaloense, A.C.; Sonora: OCNF Sonora; Estado de México: Red de Promotoras en Derechos Humanos de Ecatepec; Visión Mundial de México; Tabasco: Asociación Ecológica Santo Tomás; Centro Juvenil, Generando Dignidad; Tlaxcala: Centro Fray Julián Garcés de Derechos Humanos y Desarrollo Local; Colectivo Mujer y Utopía, A.C.; Veracruz: Red Nacional de Periodistas; Yucatán: Ciencia Social Alternativa; Red Por sus Derechos Mujeres en Red. Yamile Alejandra Suárez Suárez, Fátima Santos Pacheco, Red de Feministas Peninsulares. Silvia Núñez Esquer, OCNF en Sinaloa. María Pérez Oceguera, Observatorio de Puebla. Estela Reyes Melo, Colectivo Las subversivas.
Alma San Martín, Veracruz. Metzeri Avila San Martín, Veracruz. Carolina Salem Garrido, representa legal de la Fundación la Casa de las Mariposas, Ma del Carmen García García, feminista, Irma Alma Ochoa, Artemisas por la Equidad AC, Reyna Estela Reyes Melo/ Colectiva Subversivas/Edomex. Susana Oviedo. Bautista, representante legal de Comunidad Raiz Zubia A. C, Mónica Soto Elízaga, integrante de Las Constituyentes CDMX. Centro de intervención en crisis Alma Calma (Chihuahua, Chih.) Lucero Reyes Salgado, Crisol-IDN, Sinaloa. A.C.
Enma Obrador Garrido Domínguez AMAM. Lorena Aguilar Aguilar, Red de Feministas peninsulares
Karely Álvarez Pech, Red de Feministas Peninsulares. Mercedes Fernandez Glez, Moviiento LGBTTTI Chihuahuense.
Adriana Bautista/Yucatán. Gabriela Juárez palacios, Observatorio eclesial, Gabriela Nohemi Segura Cardenas, Comunidad en Movimiento AC.

Fuente: http://kaosenlared.net/mexico-denuncian-proceso-penal-discriminatorio-contra-mujer-en-quintana-roo/

Comparte este contenido:

Women and Violence in the Age of Migration

Lilia D. Monzó

Peter McLaren

 

 

Suggested citation:

Monzó, L.D. & McLaren, P. (2015). Women and violence in the age of migration.

Iberoamérica Social: revista-red de estudios sociales, June 10. Retrieved http://iberoamericasocial.com/women-and-violence-in-the-age-of-migration/


Women and Violence in the Age of Migration

 

Women from across Latin America are migrating north at great peril to their lives – their intended destination is, as expected, the US – that giant powerhouse that in spite of its well documented historical and continued imperialist violence and exploitation against Latin America is still able to create the ideological haze that encourages hope for that illusive “American dream.”  Pushed to the brink of desperation resulting from unimaginable poverty, privation, and fear, these women muster the courage that only women of color know that they have (it is imbued in their flesh and in their hearts as a result of their histories of oppression) and begin a journey that forever changes their lives.

Historically a male exodus, women’s migration North has increased significantly in recent years. They travel to cross “la linea” with their spouses, alone, and increasingly with young children. This past year we have seen a surge of undocumented women from Central America who have traveled with their children through Mexico to the US, hoping for jobs, opportunities, and a better life overall. Often, they have been led to believe that the US and the border patrol, specifically, is prepared to welcome them rather than restrict their entry (Joffe-Block, 2014).

Many of these women form part of the half a million migrants and refugees who fleeing violence, extortion and death threats, ride La Bestia (the Beast) or The Death Train (a freight train transporting grain, corn and scrap metal that is part of a network of trains that run from Mexico’s southernmost border with Guatemala) north to the US, with many migrants fortunate enough to survive the grueling 1, 450 mile trek (which may take weeks or even months) eventually ending up in South Florida. (Dominguez Villegas, 2014). Those who ride cheek-by-jowl atop the crooked spine of this monster come from Central American countries like Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. As the train trundles across the country, the white-knuckled migrants clutch any stable part of the freight car roof that they can so that they do not plunge headlong to the ground. There is nothing to protect them from the elements, no air conditioning to give them relief from the sweltering heat, and the Mexican leg of their perilous journey can make them prey to criminal gangs such as the Zetas cartel and corrupt government officials.  The cartels are known for rape and murder and frequently demand ransoms from relatives in the US. Some fear falling asleep as much as they fear the cartels, since sliding off the boxcar roof could mean the loss of limb or life.

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) and the War on Drugs waged by the US on Latin America has created unbearable conditions in communities south of the US-Mexican border. Powerful drug cartels often buy the support of law enforcement and find allies in the US government and their own governments, even as the drug cartels terrorize entire communities. Added to this scenario of fear, is the economic devastation experienced by the people. Some US and Canadian-based corporations, under NAFTA, have made tremendous profits off maquiladoras that pay miserly wages for inhuman working conditions while others have been able to secure government support in pushing out small farmers in order to create multimillion dollar development projects and plummet their nation’s natural resources. NAFTA, thus, as neoliberal economic policy, has been particularly devastating to the national economies of Latin America, which is directly felt on a day-to-day basis among the poorest communities. This push to migrate North is a direct response to the exacerbation of previously harsh economic conditions that has resulted from the current neoliberal phase of transnational capitalism. Not surprisingly, the US maintains its bloodied hands hidden from public scrutiny and creates an image of the benevolent neighbor who comes to the rescue when Latin American countries need economic relief, an image which allows for the continued surveillance of domestic affairs in Latin America and a greater opportunity to be ready to crush any potential socialist movements at inception. In short, the continued migration north to the US among the people of Latin America serves the interests of capital and, therefore, of the US government (Monzó, McLaren, & Rodriguez, in press).

What awaits women and girls on this journey North, whether they are coming a short distance from neighboring Mexico or crossing multiple borders to arrive, is a journey of violence that is often endured beyond their entrance into the US. Although difficult to ascertain, various reports suggest that as much as 80% of women who cross the border undocumented have been raped during their journey, either on the way to the border or at the crossing. It is so prevalent that women are now being told to expect to be raped – yes, to expect it. Indeed women interviewed indicate being recommended to take birth control precautions in anticipation of possible rape. In some cases, rape is part of the cost of being brought across the border. In other cases, women find that they must provide sexual favors in exchange for protection from the other men traveling (Goldberg, 2014).

Once in the US, many women find that their American dream turns to a nightmare, as their undocumented status becomes a tool for exploitation, sexual abuse, forced prostitution, and other forms of abuse and indignities from not only employers but sometimes from spouses or partners. Increasingly, we are becoming more aware in the US about these violent abuses to human rights, about migration of women in particular, and to the specific atrocities endured by undocumented women from Latin America. Agencies are springing up that address the psychological trauma, that provide economic and legal supports, that provide avenues for safety, and that attempt to bring awareness not only to the public but to the women and their rights in the US but also awareness to the women in Latin America who might attempt to make this journey.

We see all these efforts as vitally necessary. Yet, we are especially not optimistic about the potential that information and awareness may have on stopping women from risking their lives and their psychological well being to make this journey North. When your children are starving and there is even the slightest ray of hope for their well being, you risk everything for their survival.

These women are dealing with three distinct but highly related evils. One is the horrific realities of life under capitalism, where the means of production are owned by a few at the expense of the many, and wherein the system is such that the atrocities that are committed in the name of capital accumulation are condoned as inevitable and even justified by some as divine providence. The second is a patriarchal structure that parallels the capitalist social relation of property. Under this social relation, women are mere property of men and subject to their whims, dehumanized as less rational and therefore subhuman in an attempt to justify their oppression and enslavement. Patriarchy serves to control women who produce what Karl Marx referred to as the special commodity – the next generation of workers and in this way secure capital and the continuation of the capitalist system. Patriarchy within the family manifests the social relation of property within which the capitalist worker begins to be formed (the capacity to labour) (Brown, 2012). The third evil is racism, which in relation to immigration is often discussed in terms of nativist attitudes and Euro-American superiority, but that is in effect a response to a structure of white supremacy that became racialized in order to justify slavery – an economic system that benefitted white plantation owners with free labour (Calinicos, 1993). Racism divides the working class and keeps us from uniting against capital. It also serves as a smokescreen to the hide the role of class in the destruction of communities of color (Monzó & McLaren, 2015).

As Marxists, we denounce the exploitation and violence of the many women from Latin America who are only attempting to survive and provide for their children amidst a political economy in which their value is only viewed in terms of their potential as capital. As such, the livelihood of these women and their children is of little consequence since there exists by design a pool of non-workers who are ready and willing to become workers and subsist as alienated labor. We recognize that the many antagonisms that exist are produced through capital to sustain the system and therefore must also be eradicated. We argue for a dialectical praxis against class, patriarchy, racism, and all other antagonisms – such that we may one day rid this world of the dehumanizing existence that affects us all but some more than others. We work to create a class-less society, a communism where humanity will be affirmed through freedom, equality, and love for each other and all of nature. While we may not see this development in our life times, we believe this to be a utopia founded in our true humanity and that our responsibility lies beyond our own time and space such that we must act today in accordance with the possibilities of tomorrow.

What we need to be wary of now, is the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a trade agreement with 11 other countries in Asia and the Americas (Strether, 2015). This is an economic and trade component of the Obama administration’s pivot to Asia. When NAFTA came into effect on January 1, 1994, the Zapatistas in Mexico launched their uprising in Chiapas. The TPP has sometimes been referred to as NAFTA on stilts.  Essentially, it’s a US weapon for dictating economic and trading terms to countries throughout the Asia-Pacific.  It a measure of dismantling national regulatory measures, including those favoring state-owned enterprises, and the protection of the “intellectual property rights” of American corporations in areas such as software, media and pharmaceuticals. It involves the mobilization of US military and political and economic assets against the rising power of China. The 11 other nations now engaged in the TPP talks include Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Chile, Peru, Mexico and Canada.

This could turn into the world’s largest trade partnership, comprising 40 percent of the world’s economy- a bigger proportion than is covered by the European Union. Other Asian countries are very likely to participate such as South Korea, the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia. It is common knowledge that the US wants to delay China’s rise as an economic power in the Asia-Pacific region. Japan, the world’s third-largest economy, could also join.

The TPP is designed to create further conditions of possibility for American imperialism to ignite regional conflicts with China and North Korea involving Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam. The TPP will criminalize noncommercial sharing of works protected by copyright, and, critics say, it could create new criminal penalties for whistleblowers and journalists who access computer systems without permission.  What impact it will have on migrants worldwide–and especially women–can only be anticipated, but it will not be a pleasant story.

References

Brown, H.A. (2012). Marx on gender and the family. Chicago, Il: Haymarket Books.

Callinicos, A. (1993). Race and class. London: Bookmarks.

Dominguez Villegas, R. (2014, September 10). Central American migrants and “La

Bestia”: The route, dangers, and government responses. Migration Information Source. Retrieved from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/central-american-migrants-and-la-bestia-route-dangers-and-government-responses

Goldberg, E. (2014, September 12). 80% Of Central American Women, Girls Are

Raped Crossing Into The U.S. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/12/central-america-migrants-rape_n_5806972.html

Joffe-Block, J. (2014, June 2). Immigration rumors may be driving more women,

children to cross border. Fronteras: The Changing America Desk. Retrieved from: http://www.fronterasdesk.org/content/9650/immigration-rumors-may-be-driving-more-women-children-cross-border

Monzó, L.D. & McLaren, P. (2014, Dec.). Red love: Toward racial, economic and social

justice. Truthout, Dec. 18. Retrieved http://www.truth-out.org/opinion/item/28072-red-love-toward-racial-economic-and-social-justice

Monzó, L.D., McLaren, P., & Rodriguez, A. (in press). Deploying guns to expendable

communities: Bloodshed in Mexico, US imperialism and transnational capital – A call for revolutionary critical pedagogy. Cultural Studies/Critical Methodologies.

Strether, L. (2015, April 25). The TPP: Toward absolutist capitalism. Truthout. Retrieved

from: http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/30368-the-tpp-toward-absolutist-capitalism#

Comparte este contenido:
Page 51 of 51
1 49 50 51