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Nueva Zelanda: Education minister’s shakeup will scrap National Standards and review NCEA

Oceania/Nueva Zelanda/

Resumen: Hipkins es muy consciente de cuán limitado es el suministro de maestros y no hay peor aspecto para un nuevo ministro que los estudiantes que asisten a la escuela en enero para asistir a clases con un número insuficiente de maestros. Eso significa que todas las políticas que el gobierno anterior ya había financiado en torno a la contratación se mantendrán, pero también se está considerando cualquier otra opción que pueda tener un efecto. Hipkins tendrá un conjunto completo de mecanismos de reclutamiento en las próximas semanas y un paquete completo saldrá antes de Navidad para asegurar que tantos maestros (tanto aquí como en el extranjero) que las escuelas puedan tener en sus manos estén en las aulas por trimestre el próximo año. Auckland es un área problemática en este sentido y National fue presionada el año pasado para proporcionarles a los maestros de la ciudad más grande del país un salario extra para cubrir los crecientes costos de vida. National se mantuvo al margen y Hipkins tampoco está convencido y la profesión en sí misma no está segura de cómo funcionaría. De todos modos, tendría que ser parte de un acuerdo de negociación colectiva, algo que Hipkins ya tiene en sus manos el próximo año. El ministro ha cuestionado qué tanta «buena fe» estuvo involucrada en el sindicato de docentes más grande del país, NZEI, publicando una declaración antes de que se forme un gobierno amenazando con una huelga mientras presionan por alzas salariales de hasta 14.5 por ciento a principios del próximo año. «En la última década, los salarios de los docentes se han visto restringidos, eso no se resolverá repentinamente de la noche a la mañana», dice. En pocas palabras, los laboristas no tienen suficientes monedas en el kitty para darles a los maestros ese tipo de aumento salarial. Pero Hipkins dice que no solo se trata de pagar y quiere trabajar con la profesión con otros incentivos, como las condiciones de trabajo. La política laboral ya planea reducir la carga de trabajo de los docentes, por ejemplo, mediante la eliminación de los estándares nacionales, y aumentar el desarrollo profesional y resolver los problemas de retención. Y todos los maestros indignados por la introducción de escuelas chárter en virtud de un acuerdo de confianza y suministro entre National y ACT, pueden dormir tranquilos sabiendo que no habrá más puertas nuevas, con la posible excepción de las dos que se abrirán el próximo año. En cuanto a los cuatro programados para 2019, Hipkins dice que puede decir con cierta confianza que no seguirán adelante. Y todavía está en el proceso de averiguar cómo llevar a los 10 que ya están en funcionamiento al redil principal.

There’s nowhere near enough time between now and the festive season to completely remodel the tertiary funding system, which is why newly appointed Education Minister Chris Hipkins has had to sit down with officials this week to work out an interim solution.

Next year a longer-term redesign of the model will be done to ensure Labour meets its promise of three free years of tertiary study by 2024.

That alone will keep Hipkins under the pump for the next couple of months, but there’s loads more changes coming in the education sector.

While recruiting enough staff seems to be one of the biggest hurdles for Labour at the moment, there’s plenty of work already under way in the ministries to ensure Labour can fulfil its commitments.

Hipkins is well aware of how stretched teacher supply is and there’s no worse look for a new minister than students turning up at school in January to classes with not enough teachers.

That means every policy the prior government had already funded around recruitment will stay, but any other option that might have an effect is also being considered.

Hipkins will have a full suite of recruitment mechanisms in the coming weeks and a complete package will go out before Christmas to ensure as many teachers (both here and overseas) that schools can get their hands on will be in classrooms by term one next year.

Auckland is a huge problem area in this regard and National was put under pressure in the past year to provide those teachers in the country’s biggest city with extra pay to meet rising living costs.

National steered clear of it and Hipkins isn’t convinced either. And the profession itself isn’t sure how it would make it work.

Regardless, it would need to be part of a collective bargaining agreement – something Hipkins has already got his hands full with next year.

The minister has questioned how much «good faith» was involved in the country’s largest teacher union, NZEI, putting out a statement ahead of a government being formed threatening strike action as they push for pay rises of up to 14.5 per cent early next year.

«Over the last decade teacher salaries have been constrained, that’s not going to suddenly all be fixed overnight,» he says.

Put simply, Labour don’t have enough coin in the kitty to give teachers that kind of pay increase.

But Hipkins says it’s not just about pay and he wants to work with the profession on other incentives, like work conditions.

Labour policy already plans to reduce teachers’ workload, such as through its scrapping of National Standards, and increase professional development and resolve retention issues.

And all those teachers outraged by the introduction of charter schools under a confidence and supply agreement between National and ACT, can sleep easy knowing there won’t be any more new doors opening, with the exception possibly of the two due to open next year.

As for the four scheduled for 2019, Hipkins says he can say with some confidence they won’t go ahead. And he’s still in the process of working out how to bring the 10 already in operation into the mainstream fold.

Hipkins was very critical of the poor track record of the Whangaruru school in Northland and the millions of dollars invested in it that the ministry was unable to recoup from the school’s trust when then-Education Minister Hekia Parata shut it down.

He says if he can get the money back he will, he’s just not sure how realistic that is.

Also delighting teachers is the death of National Standards – but that doesn’t mean gone are the days of reporting.

Hipkins is clear he doesn’t want to leave a hole and there has to be a transition process for teachers, parents and students.

Ultimately it will mean a lighter workload for teachers and more time to teach. There’ll be less assessment, but Hipkins insists the quality of it will be better.

This is going to be a real test for the new minister. The biggest risk he faces is teachers taking that as permission to stop tracking students’ achievements altogether, or worse, not using the extra time to really work on improving the country’s literacy and numeracy rates.

If literacy and numeracy do not markedly improve in New Zealand on the back of National Standards being scrapped then Hipkins will have questions to answer.

He describes it as wanting «more feeding and less weighing of the pig» – if the pig winds up lighter when it hits the scales then the country really has a problem.

NCEA isn’t on the cards to be scrapped but it will undergo a full review on Hipkins’ watch. After 15 years it needs to continue to evolve, he says.

At the same time teachers needed to be trusted more and just because something wasn’t being assessed didn’t mean it wasn’t happening.

He’s not big on targets around student qualifications but could consider setting some around those teenagers not in employment, education or training (NEETs).

There’s a real «paradigm shift» needed as part of the NCEA review and that means moving how students and teachers think about NCEA, which is currently credits and subjects, to what employers care about – that’s skills.

Another much-needed shift is in the way mental health care is provided to students currently.

Some of the issues around youth accessing mental health care aren’t necessarily a lack of resources but the stigma attached to it.

That might mean the ministry needs to look at whether students avoid using school counsellors because they feel like they’re resorting to a shrink.

There is evidence that the more discreet health services – the ones referred to more as drop-in centres – are more effective because help is offered more subtly.

Expect to see some serious change in the way these services are delivered, particularly in schools.

The workload ahead is no easy task and Hipkins also has a young and ambitious marksman in National’s Nikki Kaye.

He’ll be hoping his own report card in 12 months’ time is well and truly above the national standard


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Students will suffer if Australia and New Zealand change tertiary fee agreement

Nueva Zelanda/Octubre de 2017/Autor: Tuulia Nikula/Fuente: Stuff

Resumen: La nueva Primera Ministra de Nueva Zelanda, Jacinda Ardern, ha afirmado que los actuales acuerdos de matrícula para estudiantes australianos en Nueva Zelanda finalizarán si la política no sigue siendo recíproca.

En un debate durante la campaña de las elecciones generales, Adern declaró: «Si [Australia] nos excluye de la educación terciaria, los excluiremos de aquí».

Este «bloqueo» no se refiere a una barrera formal, como una ley que impide las inscripciones, sino que se introduciría creando consecuencias financieras negativas para los estudiantes. En otras palabras, los australianos interesados en estudiar al otro lado de la zanja podrían enfrentar la posibilidad de cuadruplicar los aranceles cobrados por los proveedores de educación de Nueva Zelanda.

Recientemente reiteró que la posición en una entrevista, indicando un movimiento del gobierno australiano, tendría efectos fluidos en Nueva Zelanda.

New Zealand’s new Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, has asserted that the current tuition fee arrangements for Australian students in New Zealand will end if the policy does not remain reciprocal.

In a debate during the general election campaign, Adern stated: «If [Australia] lock us out of tertiary education, we will lock them out of it here.»

This «locking out» does not refer to a formal barrier – such as a law impeding enrolments – but would be introduced by creating negative financial consequences for students. In other words, Australians interested in studying on the other side of the ditch could potentially face quadrupling in tuition fees charged by New Zealand education providers.

She recently reiterated that position in an interview, stating movement from the Australian government would have flow-on effects in New Zealand.


Ardern has emphasised that she is not planning to take the first step. Instead, Australians’ eligibility to subsidised tertiary education in New Zealand will depend on the actions of the Turnbull government, which in May this year announced its Higher Education Reform Package.

The proposed tertiary funding reform suggests a division of students into three tiers: citizens (tier one), permanent residents and NZ special category visa holders (tier two), and international students (tier three).

Under the new policy, students in all tiers would see their tuition fee increase. However, the proposed changes would have the largest impact on tier two, including most New Zealanders, who would lose their entitlement to Australian government subsidies (Commonwealth Grant Scheme).

This means that from January 2018 onwards, all new tier two students are required to pay full domestic fees.

At the moment, the average public share of course costs in Australia is around 58 per cent. Removing this (i.e. the CGS subsidy) gives an indication of the financial impact of this policy.

For instance, in a four-year degree programme, NZ students would face average annual fee increases of A$8000-9000 compared to the approximately A$2000-3600 annual increases proposed for domestic students.

The increase is higher in courses attracting more government subsidies, such as medicine, where students would be locked out of more than A$130,000 government funding during the six-year programme.

As a way of compensating for the massive fee increase, the new scheme offers to extend the Higher Education Loan Program (HELP) to New Zealanders and other tier two students, which would provide access to funding to cover the tuition fee costs.

This would improve the existing situation, where most NZ students are not able to access the loan scheme in Australia and have to pay upfront fees.


The financial consequences for Australian students in New Zealand would depend on the final policy details. No information has been released yet. In New Zealand the government subsidy covers around 70 per cent of course fees (on average) which Australian students might be asked to pay out of their own pockets.

There is also a possibility that Australian students could be charged international tuition fees, fees for most of them would quadruple. A Bachelor of Arts degree could go up from about NZ$5800 (at two universities in Auckland), to at about NZ$28,000 a year. This is approximately what international students pay.

In addition, the existing rules in New Zealand provide other entitlements for Australian students. This includes access to student allowances and loans (with lesser restrictions than applied to New Zealanders in Australia) that could be at risk.

The proposed changes would have a potential impact on at around 15,000 students (around 4600 Australian and 12,000 NZ students), making up at around 1 per cent of all domestic enrolments in both countries.

Though these changes would involve a fairly small group of people, the impacts on the individuals affected would be significant. It would limit the study opportunities for Australians and New Zealanders interested in studying outside their country of citizenship.

Currently, the tertiary funding plan is on hold. The Turnbull Government’s reforms were rejected by the Senate. However, if the policy was enacted and implemented as planned starting in January 2018, this would bring one aspect of the existing ANZAC relationship to an end.


Even in the late 1980s/early 1990s, with significant tuition fee reforms for both Australia and New Zealand, this entitlement to equal access to government tuition fee subsidies was not removed.

The tuition fee policy change is only a minor element in the wider context of reciprocity arrangements between Australia and New Zealand.

The rights of New Zealanders living in Australia have been eroded significantly since 2001. So far, New Zealand has continued to provide fairly generous rights to Australians without retaliation.

The ConversationIn the larger context, the one-sided decision making can have a damaging impact on the trust between the two countries.

There is also a concern that similar retaliation motivated policy responses could be forthcoming in other areas, further fracturing the existing trans-Tasman arrangements. This is why the Australian government should consult with its New Zealand counterpart when making decisions affecting both countries.


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Nueva Zelanda: Teachers gearing up for pay battles

Nueva Zelanda/Octubre de 2017/Fuente: RNZ

Resumen:  El Instituto Educativo ha dicho a los maestros de primaria que se preparen para la batalla industrial de sus vidas, mientras que a los miembros de la Asociación de Maestros de Primaria se les ha instado a exigir un aumento inmediato del salario del 5 por ciento para contrarrestar la escasez de personal. Incluso se ha hablado de una huelga, aunque los sindicatos todavía están lejos de finalizar sus reclamaciones y mucho menos iniciar negociaciones con el Ministerio de Educación. Por supuesto, las conversaciones duras son baratas cuando las conferencias sindicales se están preparando para las negociaciones de convenios colectivos, y la realidad es que las aspiraciones de «recuperación» en los últimos tiempos han fracasado en los asentamientos, con aumentos del 1 o 2 por ciento al año. Hace sólo dos años, el PPTA buscó un aumento del 5 por ciento del salario, la mayor parte como una recuperación de la inflación, y terminó estableciéndose un poco más del 2 por ciento al año en tres años. Era menos de lo que el sindicato pretendía, pero dijo que sigue siendo uno de los asentamientos más altos del sector público en ese momento.

The Educational Institute has told primary teachers to prepare for the industrial battle of their lives while members of the Post Primary Teachers Association have been urged to demand an immediate 5 percent pay rise to counter staff shortages.

There’s even been talk of strike action, though the unions are still some way from finalising their claims let alone beginning negotiations with the Education Ministry.

Of course tough talk is cheap when union conferences are preparing for collective agreement talks, and the reality is that aspirations for «catch-up» pay rises in recent times have fizzled out in settlements providing increases of 1 or 2 percent a year.

Just two years ago the PPTA sought a 5 percent pay rise, most of it as a catch-up with inflation, and ended up settling for a little over 2 percent a year over three years. It was less than the union was aiming for, but it said it was still one of the highest settlements in the public sector at the time.

And the last time teachers went on strike was 2010 when secondary teachers fighting for a 4 percent rise refused to teach certain year levels on certain days. They were forced to abandon that battle in 2011 and accept a rise of 1.6 percent a year for two years after the Christchurch earthquake made their demands untenable.

So will next year’s talks be any different?

There’s the same complaints about pay rates and workloads as in previous years, but this time around union leaders are hoping the teacher shortages, which some principals say are a crisis, will give them extra leverage.

As the president of the PPTA, Jack Boyle, said: «There just aren’t enough of us».

Boyle argues that teachers’ pay and conditions are the key to attracting more talented people to teaching and keeping them there.

Certainly teachers are paid less than other people with tertiary qualifications. According to OECD figures, primary school teachers’ pay after 12 years’ service is 86 percent of the earnings of other New Zealanders’ with tertiary education and for secondary teachers the figure is 94 percent.

That’s equal to the average for the OECD and the figure for primary teachers improves to 90 percent if the comparison is to people with a similar level of education.

In addition, the PPTA has calculated that secondary teachers earning $75,949 at the top of the pay scale are paid 1.5 times the average median income, down from 1.8 in 2004.

Whether the union will seek to restore that relativity – which would require a pay rise of about $11,000 or 14.5 percent at the top of the scale – remains to be seen.

Whatever the unions seek, their success is likely to hinge not so much on the rights and wrongs of their case, but on the extent to which their members’ willingness to take industrial action out-matches the government’s resolve to keep a lid on spending.

PPTA members have been told to prepare financially for next year’s industrial campaign while the NZEI’s national secretary, Paul Goulter, told delegates at the union’s conference in Rotorua to «commit to taking on the biggest industrial fight in our professional lifetimes».

«It will most likely go to the wall, we will most likely be looking down the barrel of industrial action,» Mr Goulter said.

If it comes to that, the NZEI will be tapping a well of discontent that appears to run deep among primary school teachers and principals.

Many have a strong dislike of the national standards in reading, writing and maths, coupled with a growing distrust of the government’s big-ticket education policy, the Communities of Learning.

They said the demands on teachers were unrealistic and were driving many out of the profession, a complaint echoed by secondary teachers too.

All of which means both the PPTA and the NZEI will enter next year’s pay talks knowing they can turn their fighting talk into real action.


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Colombia y Nueva Zelanda buscan el rescate de culturas indígenas en la industria del cine

Colombia y Nueva Zelanda/26 de septiembre de 2017/Fuente:

La agencia de educación del gobierno de Nueva Zelanda, Education New Zealand, presentó en Colombia el conversatorio «Caminos y Protocolos – Colaborando con Comunidades Indígenas en Proyectos Fílmicos».

La Embajadora de Nueva Zelanda para Colombia, Jacqui Caine, inauguró la actividad y el periodista Simón Granja fue el moderador de la actividad que contó con la participación de estudiantes, académicos y personas interesadas en la industria fílmica y el trabajo audiovisual con poblaciones autóctonas.

Javiera Visedo, Senior Market Development Manager de Education New Zealand, declaró que “Nueva Zelanda es líder mundial en modelos de la industria cinematográfica que han superado con éxito la brecha entre las comunidades tanto indígenas como no indígenas, y la educación que reciben los estudiantes neozelandeses tiene mucho que ver en esto. Nuestro sistema educativo se basa en que los estudiantes aprenden habilidades y conocimientos que los preparan para trabajar y desempeñarse en las áreas que está demandando el mercado actual y la industria audiovisual no es una excepción”.

Fuente de la Noticia:

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New Zealand children getting an education ‘from the past’

New Zealand/September 12, 2017/ Source:

Some of New Zealand’s top entrepreneurs are warning New Zealand’s education system needs to change if the country is going to keep up with a rapidly changing workforce.

The comments were made during the latest PwC Herald Talks, Global vs Local, held today at the St James Theatre in Wellington.

Keynote speaker and Zuru founder Nick Mowbray said New Zealand did not have a lot of global brands, partly because the education system did not set people up for entrepreneurism.

«We always sit back and rely on our core competencies and export earners, which are agriculture, tourism and education,» Mowbray said.

«But there are lots of small economies that build truly global companies, look at Switzerland or the Nordic markets.

«They have loads of global brands and global companies, and we have very few. So I think it’s how we can create these global companies, and it starts earlier, with education,» he said.

«If you can’t build this into kids from an early age, you’re never going to be good at it later on.»

Mowbray said digital, social and entrepreneurial skills were the new requirements for success, but many New Zealand children were getting an education «from the past».

«Half the world’s jobs aren’t going to exist in the next 25 to 30 years,» Mowbray said.

«They’re going to be replaced by automation, it’s going to be a robot that flips your burger, it’s going to be self-driving cars. For us, we’re replacing a lot of our production lines with robots,» he said.

«So it’s just the basics of how do I make a product, how do I make a service, what is my channel plan, what is my marketing plan, what is my sales plan?

«All of these basic skills could be taught in school from a young age.»

New Zealand Story Group director Rebecca Smith said better language skills also needed to be added into the mix.

«We need to be teaching our children more about the opportunities that are in the world, creating global citizens, ones that understand different cultures and the diversity of what the world has to offer,» Smith said.

«I’ve got one child who is learning Spanish and one who is learning Chinese, so we figure we’ve got most of the world covered with those two languages.

«As long as they’re learning a different language, it just changes the way the brain functions, and it gives them the opportunity to be open-minded about new languages in the future.»

Smith said New Zealand’s current crop of entrepreneurs scored highly for integrity and honesty, they just needed a bit more confidence.

«We find solutions to problems that other people don’t even think about.

«So we do need to keep that ingenuity and care, it’s why people buy from us.

«Now we need to learn how to sell, and how to market ourselves better. To pitch up and be more confident.»

Opus International Consultants chief executive David Prentice said students needed to be better equipped than they were now, for a world that was rapidly changing.

He said there needed to be changes to focus on the demands of a digital world.

«We simply can’t continue down the path that we’re going using traditional subjects, and expect that in 10, 20, 30 years time they’ll be equipped for what the world is like then.

«IT is very general, it’s very broad. But there’s no doubt about IT and the innovation and opportunities that that creates.

«Whether you’re looking at 3D goggles, or driverless cars, all of it has a fundamental basis in IT.»

The next PwC Herald Talks event is being held in Auckland on Wednesday morning at SkyCity theatre.


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Nueva Zelanda: Four new charter schools announced by govt

Nueva Zelanda/Septiembre de 2017/Fuente: RNZ

Resumen:  El Gobierno Nacional ha anunciado cuatro nuevas escuelas charter, incluyendo la primera en la Isla Sur y Gisborne. El subsecretario de Educación David Seymour dijo que abriría en 2019. Incluyen un puesto avanzado de Christchurch de la escuela militar de la vanguardia de Auckland y una High School secundaria para los niños desde los años nueve a 11 en Gisborne, Tūranga Tangata Rite. Este último sería dirigido por Te Runanga o Turanganui a Kiwa, que representa los intereses de Rongowhakata, Ngai Tāmanuhiri y Te Aitanga a Māhaki. También habrá una escuela secundaria bilingüe maorí para ir con la escuela primaria dirigida por la Manukau Urban Māori Authority en South Auckland y City Senior School, una escuela de la ciudad de Auckland con un enfoque en ciencia, tecnología, ingeniería, matemáticas y artes.

The National government has announced four new charter schools, including the first in the South Island and Gisborne. Under-secretary of education David Seymour said they would open in 2019.

They include a Christchurch outpost of Auckland’s Vanguard Military School, and an iwi-run junior high school for children in years nine to 11 in Gisborne, Tūranga Tangata Rite.

The latter would be run by Te Runanga o Turanganui a Kiwa, which represents the interests of Rongowhakata, Ngai Tāmanuhiri and Te Aitanga a Māhaki.

There will also be a Māori bilingual secondary school to go with the primary school run by the Manukau Urban Māori Authority in South Auckland, and City Senior School, an inner-city Auckland school with a focus on science, technology, engineering, maths and arts.

There are currently 10 charter or partnership schools, with two more scheduled to open next year.

Mr Seymour said the announcement could not be delayed until after the election because the schools needed time to set up.

«The number of applications that we have and the number of partnership schools that are now over-subscribed shows there is a need for this and why shouldn’t we get some more opened,» he said.

Asked if the schools were being set up in areas that needed more schools, Mr Seymour said that would be proven by parental demand.

«These schools get paid for the number of students that choose to attend them and whether or not there’s a need for them is up to those students and parents.»

He was confident the schools would survive any change of government that might follow this month’s general elections, noting strong Labour Party connections to two of the schools and general support for the schools among Māori.

«I think they would be mad to do anything to these schools because fundamentally, they are succeeding academically,» he said.

Teacher unions were critical of the announcement.

Post Primary Teachers Association president Jack Boyle said Ministry of Education figures showed only 59.7 percent of charter school leavers from charter schools left with NCEA level 2 or above last year, compared to a system-wide figure of 80.3 percent.

«Opening charter schools is not going to raise the achievement of our children. It’s not going to close any gaps. It’s not going to level any playing fields. The only thing charter schools do successfully is reward mediocrity by using scarce education money to prop up private owners,» he said.

Educational Institute president Lynda Stuart said the money spent on charter schools should be spent on support for children with special needs.



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New Zealand: How Free Tertiary Education Robs Today’s Poor

New Zealand/August 30, 2017/ Source:

Robin Hood Reversed: How Free Tertiary Education Robs Today’s Poor For Tomorrow’s Rich
29 AUGUST 2017

The implementation of a zero fees policy for tertiary education would reach into the pockets of the disadvantaged, to line the wallets of the future’s wealthy, according to a briefing paper just published by the Taxpayers’ Union.

‘Robin Hood Reversed: How Free Tertiary Education Robs Today’s Poor for Tomorrow’s Rich’ assesses the impacts of free tertiary education policies, like that announced today by the Labour Party.

Jordan Williams, Executive Director of the Taxpayers’ Union said, “We found that similar policies overseas have led to job shortages in crucial areas, and poorer quality courses.”

“Contrary to claims that zero tertiary education fees help the poor, in Scottland, which introduced zero fees in the early 2000’s, students from low socio-economic groups were the first to be shut out. This contradicts the political ideology of those who advocate for it, because the policy hampers social mobility, and actually increases barriers to reducing inequality.”

“The costs of such a policy are borne by low and middle-income earners, to help tomorrow’s rich get a free ride.”

The briefing paper, Robin Hood Reversed: How Free Tertiary Education Robs Today’s Poor for Tomorrow’s Rich, is available for download at:

Hard copies are also available on request.

Key findings:
• Taxpayers already cover 84 percent of the cost of obtaining a tertiary degree.
• The average household currently pays $2,456 in tax per year to fund tertiary education.
• Fully implemented, Labour’s proposal would increase that cost by $852.57 per year.
• Low and middle-income earners will pay more to subsidise tomorrow’s rich.
• Likely effects of the policy, based on the experience in Scottland with its zero fees policy, include:
o more job shortages in crucial skills-based areas;
o lower quality tertiary education;
o less access to education for students from disadvantaged or low socioeconomic backgrounds; and
o less social mobility and entrenched income inequality.


How Free Tertiary Education Robs Today’s Poor

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